The one-page comic below was created as a quick reference for faculty and students at Olin College, where students and faculty frequently have spontaneous, complex learning interactions in seemingly chaotic studio/project environments. Cognitive apprenticeship theory provides one of many ways to make sense of the sorts of implicitly taught and culturally engrained deep teaching and learning skills that might otherwise be lost in overwhelming chaos.
The text after the comic is also in the Scribd document description and functions as an accessible image description of the one-page comic.
Header: Cognitive Apprenticeship – 7 techniques for making thinking visible (studio version)
This comic is a one-page visual description of 5 Cognitive Apprenticeship techniques developed in the 80′s by Collins, Brown, Newman, and Duguid, plus two additions adapted by the author for adult learners (denoted with an *).
The techniques are:
- scaffolding (faculty directs attention — a faculty member frames part of a complex problem, asking a student to “please focus your work here first”)
- bounding* (student directs attention — a student frames part of a complex problem, asking a faculty member to “please focus your feedback here first”)
- modeling (faculty does, faculty explains — a faculty member works with a complex problem, explaining what “I am trying to…” do)
- coaching (student does, faculty explains — a student works with a complex problem while a faculty member coaches them on what “you might try to…” do)
- narrating* (faculty does, student explains — a faculty member works with a complex problem while a student explains what they think “you are trying to…” do)
- articulating (student does, student explains — a student works with a complex problem, explaining what “I am trying to…” do)
- reflecting (comparing faculty/expert practice with student/novice practice)
These seven techniques are displayed in a thought bubble being pondered by a cartoon character who has lifted off the top of their head, pointing to the gears turning inside; this is a metaphor for “making thinking visible.”
Beside that character are two ways the 7 techniques can be used:
- used to describe spontaneous, complex learning interactions (a faculty and student interacting over a complex problem, their illegible speech bubbles overwritten by a label saying “what is happening here? Bounding.”) A note at the bottom says that the technique “switches rapidly every 1-2 sentences.”
- used to request spontaneous, complex learning interactions (a faculty and student interacting over a complex problem; the student says “could you please Model this for me?” and the faculty replies “sure!”)
The text at bottom left (cut off by the scan): *denotes new code adapted for adult learners. Comic CC-BY-SA Mel Chua 2016.